Scratch is a programming language and online community ( that makes it easy to create your own interactive stories, games, animations, and simulationsand share your creations online. As young people create and share Scratch projects, they learn to think creatively, reason systematically, and work collaboratively, while also learning important mathematical and computational ideas. Young people around the world have shared more than 10 million projects on the Scratch website, with thousands of new projects every day. (For information on who has contributed to Scratch, see the Scratch Credits page:


Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk, Kasia Chmielinski, Andrew Sliwinski, Eric Schilling, Carl Bowman, Saskia Leggett, Christan Balch, Ricarose Roque, Sayamindu Dasgupta, Ray Schamp, Matt Taylor, Chris Willis-Ford, Tim Mickel, Colby Gutierrez-Kraybill, Juanita



Remixing as a pathway to computational thinking
Sayamindu Dasgupta, William Hale, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, and Benjamin Mako Hill
Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2016)

Skill progression in Scratch revisited
J. Nathan Matias, Sayamindu Dasgupta, and Benjamin Mako Hill
Proceedings of ACM CHI 2016


Extending Scratch: New pathways into programming
Sayamindu Dasgupta, Shane M. Clements, Abdulrahman Y. idlbi, Chris Willis-Ford, and Mitchel Resnick
IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC ’15)


Personalized Extensions: Democratizing the programming of virtual-physical interactions
Abdulrahman Y. idlbi
Masters thesis

Family creative learning: Engaging parents and children as learning partners in creative technology workshops
Ricarose Roque, Natalie Rusk, Luisa Beck, Xiaodi Chen
Proceedings of the International Conference of Learning Sciences

Engaging novices in programming, experimenting, and learning with data
Sayamindu Dasgupta, Mitchel Resnick
ACM Inroads

Online Learning Webs: Designing Support Structures for Online Communities
Champika Fernando
Masters Thesis


Learn to Code, Code to Learn
Mitchel Resnick

Designing for Tinkerability
Mitchel Resnick, Eric Rosenbaum
Design, Make, Play: Growing the Next Generation of STEM Innovators

From surveys to collaborative art: Enabling children to program with online data
Sayamindu Dasgupta
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children

Youth roles and leadership in an online creative community
Ricarose Roque, Natalie Rusk, Amos Blanton
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1, Int'l Society of the Learning Sciences


Mother's Day, Warrior Cats, and digital fluency:
Stories from the Scratch online community

Mitchel Resnick
Proceedings of Constructionism 2012 conference

Best of both worlds: Issues of structure and agency in computational creation, in and out of school
Karen Brennan
PhD dissertation

New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking
Karen Brennan, Mitchel Resnick
American Educational Research Association (AERA) conference

Reviving Papert's dream
Mitchel Resnick
Educational Technology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 42-46

Learning with data: A toolkit to democratize the computational exploration of data
Sayamindu Dasgupta
Masters thesis

Finding a needle in a haystack: New ways to search and browse on Scratch
Gaia Carini
Masters thesis

Exploring real-time video interactivity with Scratch
Tony Hwang
Masters thesis

Making together: Creative collaboration for everyone
Ricarose Roque
Masters thesis

Designing for remixing: Supporting an online community of amateur creators
Andres Monroy-Hernandez
PhD dissertation


Making projects, making friends: Online community as catalyst for interactive media creation
Karen Brennan, Mitch Resnick, Andres Monroy-Hernandez
New Directions for Youth Development, 2010(128), 75-83

More than code: The significance of social interactions in young people's development as interactive media creators
Karen Brennan, Amanda Valverde, Joe Prempeh, Ricarose Roque, Michelle Chung
ED-MEDIA 2011 conference proceedings

Mind the gap: Differences between the aspirational and the actual in an online community of learners
Karen Brennan
CSCL'11 conference proceedings


Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch - A discussion
Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, and Mitchel Resnick
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)

The Scratch programming language and environment
John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Evelyn Eastmond
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)


Scratch: Creating and sharing interactive media
Karen Brennan, Andres Monroy-Hernandez, Mitch Resnick
CSCL'09 conference proceedings

Scratch-Ed: An online community for Scratch educators
Karen Brennan
CSCL'09 conference proceedings


Illusions of ambiguity: Signaling presence and representation of gender identities on a programmable media website for young people
Karen Brennan
Association of Internet Researchers annual conference

Scratch for Second Life
Eric Rosenbaum
International Conference on Learning Sciences

Utilizing technology to support the cultivation of empathy
Shaundra Daily, Karen Brennan
IDC'08 conference proceedings


ScratchR: Sharing user-generated programmable media
Andrés Monroy-Hernández
Interaction Design and Children Conference, Aalborg, Denmark